Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education curriculum and instructional design continuously undergo reforms that aim to prepare learners for the challenges of the 21st century (Hoeg & Bencze, 2017; Pietarinen, Pyhältö & Soini, 2017).

 In particular, STEM education has adopted strategies that integrate modern technologies in teaching and learning to enhance knowledge construction and application among learners and societies. In some countries, STEM education reforms are fuelled by socio-economic and political imperatives that seek to promote social justice (Mnguni 2018). More recently, the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has forced schools and universities to adopt online teaching methods in order to reduce the spread of the coronavirus. Consequently, researchers are exploring strategies for the incorporation of online teaching and learning methods. The effectiveness of these strategies and their impact on the students' conceptualization of STEM knowledge, its application, and relevance are continuously being investigated.

The application and relevance of online teaching and learning in STEM education can be viewed within the context of the 4th industrial revolution (Penprase, 2018). Research has shown that the integration of digital learning technologies improves students' conceptualization of STEM knowledge (Kelley & Knowles, 2016). There is a need to explore further how these online teaching and learning methods could be used in diverse contexts, particularly in under-resourced context and rural areas. In addition to digital learning technologies, the 21st century has seen the rise in technologies such as robotics, virtual reality (VR), and artificial intelligence (AI). However, the role of these technologies in the teaching of STEM education has not been explored extensively. Furthermore, the teaching and learning skills required for teachers and learners to effectively use these technologies require
extensive research.

Therefore, this special issue is aimed at research papers that explore strategies for online teaching and learning methods in STEM education. Papers that reflect the effectiveness and impact of these strategies across the different STEM disciplines are invited. Additionally, papers exploring skills
required for successful online teaching and learning are also invited

Potential topics
The following list of potential topics is provided to stimulate ideas for manuscripts. Authors are not
restricted to this list, but submissions must provide relevant insights framed by these research topics:
a) The impact of Covid-19 on teaching and learning in STEM education
b) Strategies for the integration of online teaching and learning methods in STEM education
c) Teacher preparedness to adopt online teaching methods in STEM education
d) The impact of online teaching methods in STEM education on learner development
e) Opportunities for 4IR technologies in STEM education

Submission process
Authors should first submit their manuscripts directly to Lindelani Mnguni (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) and
Hamza Mokiwa (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.). The manuscriptsthat successfully pass the first review phase
will enter the second evaluation phase.
All papers must adhere to the author guidelines of the Journal of Baltic Science Education.
Template online:
Submitted papers will be subject to the usual double-blind review process with multiple reviewers.
For questions, please contact the guest editors.

Key dates
• Paper submission deadline: 15 August 2020
• Notifications to authors: 15 September 2020
• Expected publication date: December 2020

Hoeg, D. G., & Bencze, J. L. (2017). Values underpinning STEM education in the USA: An analysis of the Next
Generation Science Standards. Science Education, 101(2), 278-301.
Mnguni, L. (2018). Citizenship education and the curriculum ideologies of Natural Sciences and Life Sciences
curricula in South Africa. Curriculum Perspectives, 38(2), 97–106.
Pietarinen, J., Pyhältö, K., & Soini, T. (2017). Large-scale curriculum reform in Finland–exploring the
interrelation between implementation strategy, the function of the reform, and curriculum
coherence. The Curriculum Journal, 28(1), 22–40.
Penprase, B. E. (2018). The fourth industrial revolution and higher education. In N. W. Gleason (Ed.), Higher
Education in the Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (pp. 207-228). Palgrave MacMillan
Kelley, T. R., & Knowles, J. G. (2016). A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education. International
Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 11.